Stephen A. (Ash) Bullard


School of Fisheries, Aquaculture & Aquatic Sciences

(334) 844-9278 


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324 Upchurch Hall
Auburn Univ, AL 36849



  • PhD 2007, Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi (Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs, Mississippi). “Ecology & Evolution of Fish Blood Flukes (Aporocotylidae).” Unpublished dissertation, 684 pages in 2 volumes.
  • MSc 2002, Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi (Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs, Mississippi). “Blood flukes from commercially & recreationally important fishes in the Gulf of Mexico.” Unpublished thesis, 128 pages.
  • BSc 1997, Marine Sciences (Marine Biology), University of South Carolina, Columbia.


  • Director, Southeast Cooperative Fish Parasite & Disease Laboratory (aka AU Fish Disease Lab/Coop).
  • Professor, School of Fisheries, Aquaculture, & Aquatic Sciences.
  • Associate Editor, The Journal of Parasitology.


  • 2019-2020. Review Editor, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.
  • 2018-2020. Section Editor (Fish Parasitology), Parasitology Research.
  • 2014-2019. Associate Professor, School of Fisheries, Aquaculture, & Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.
  • 2008-2014. Assistant Professor, School of Fisheries, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.
  • 2007-2008. Postdoc (RM Overstreet). University of Southern Mississippi. Ocean Springs, MS.
  • 1997-2007. Research Assistant (RM Overstreet). Gulf Coast Research Laboratory. Ocean Springs, MS.
  • 1997-2004. Research Associate (GW Benz), SE Aquatic Research Institute. Cohutta, GA.
  • 1995-1996. NSF-REU (GW Benz). Tennessee Aquarium Research Institute. Chattanooga, TN.
  • 1996. REU (JM Quattro). Dept. Marine Sciences, Univ. South Carolina. Columbia, SC.
  • 1994-1995. Research Intern (GW Benz). Tennessee Aquarium. Chattanooga, TN.


Professional interests & areas of expertise:

I am a parasitologist who trains students as field biologists, analytical researchers, diagnosticians, teachers, and scholars of parasitology. We explore taxonomy, systematics, and parasite biology by collecting parasites, symbionts, and pathogens in association with invertebrates and vertebrates in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and oceanic localities nearby and abroad. We use these approaches to ask the biggest question: “What organism does this?” What follows comprises applied and basic lines of investigation relevant to agencies and biologists with whom we collaborate.

Aquatic Parasitology Laboratory:

APL is housed within the CASIC Building on Auburn University’s main campus. APL comprises offices, numerous dissecting and compound microscopes variously equipped with differential interference contrast optics and drawing tubes, molecular laboratory, histopathology laboratory, wet laboratory, parasite collection, parasitology reference library, marine fish collection, field and fishing gear, trucks, and boats. The main objective of the APL is to explore the taxonomy, systematics, life histories, and pathological effects of parasites (including metazoan and protozoan parasites, microbes, viruses, and other commensals) that infect and/or associate with aquatic animals.

Southeastern Cooperative Fish Parasite & Disease Project:

The Cooperative has been hosted by the School of Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences and Alabama Department of Conservation & Natural Resources continuously since 1964. It offers assistance to state and federal agencies concerning fish diseases and aquatic animal health through cooperative research, grants, and contracts. We have existing annual or 5-year agreements with most of the cognizant state natural resource agencies in the Southeastern US.


(*graduate student; **undergraduate student; †corresponding author)

128. Bullard, SA, HR Dutton, MB Warren. Submitted 13 Jan 2021. Redescription of Cathariotrema selachii (Monogenoidea: Monocotylidae), emendation of monotypic Cathariotrema, and proposal of Cathariotreminae n. sub. fam. based on morphological and nucleotide evidence. Journal of Parasitology.

127. Warren, MB and SA Bullard. Submitted 31 Dec 2020. Fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Indonesia: Two new genera and species infecting the banded eagle ray, Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch and Sneider, 1801) (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from Borneo. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

126. Curran, SS, HR Dutton, MB Warren, L du Preez, SA Bullard. Submitted 31 Dec 2020. Two new species of Cephalogonimidae Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchioidea) from Africa (Mozambique and Guinea), including a new phylogenetic hypothesis for related plagiorchioids. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

125. Svitin, R. HR Dutton, E Netherlands, Y Syrota, SA Bullard, O Verneau, L du Preez. Submitted 2 Dec 2020. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillariabumpi n. sp. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) parasitising West African Lungfish Protopterus annectens brieni Poll (Lepidosireniformes: Protopteridae) in Mozambique and its phylogenetic position within capillariid nematodes. Systematic Parasitology.

124. Truong*, TN, SA Bullard. Submitted 10 Nov 2020. Susceptibility of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and their hybrid to metazoan parasite infection in earthen pond aquaculture. Comparative Parasitology

123. Curran, SS, SP Ksepka*, SR Martorelli, RM Overstreet, MB Warren*, SA Bullard. Submitted 4 Oct 2020. Opechona chloroscombri and Opechona corkumi n. sp. (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae) from the northern Gulf of Mexico with a phylogenetic analysis base don 28S rDNA. Journal of Parasitology.

122. Ksepka*, SP, SA Bullard. Accepted 5 Jan 2021. Morphological, phylogenetic, and pathological details of “red sore disease” (coinfection by Epistylus cf. wuhanensis and Aeromonas hydrophila) on sportfishes from reservoirs in the southeastern United States. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health.

121. Dutton*, HR, LH Du Preez, SS Curran, NV Whelan, SA Bullard. Submitted 8 July 2020. First record of a polystomatid from the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, (Cryptodira: Chelydridae) or Mississippi; with taxonomic comments on “Neopolystoma orbiculare (Stunkard, 1916)” and its junior subjective synonyms. Journal of Parasitology.

120. Ksepka*, SP, JM Rash, SA Bullard. Accepted with revision 30 June 2020. Myxobolus cerebralis (Hofer, 1903) (Bivalvulida: Myxobolidae) could infect two non-Tubifex tubifex definitive hosts in the Southeastern United States. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.

119. Truong*, TN, MB Warren*, SP Ksepka*, SS Curran, SA Bullard. Accepted with revision 8 July 2020Postovitellinum psiloterminae n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Lissorchiidae) infecting intestine of Cyclocheilos enoplos (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Mekong River, Vietnam. Journal of Parasitology.

118. Warren*, MB, MD Bakenhaster, HR Dutton*, SP Ksepka*, SA Bullard. Submitted 30 May 2020. Redescription of the type species of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and description of a new congener infecting yellowedge grouper, Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology.

117. Ksepka*, SP, B Hickson, NV Whelan, SA Bullard. In review. A new species of Myxobolus Butschli, 1882 (Bilvalvulida: Myxobolidae) infecting stratum spongiosum of the cryptic, endangered sicklefin redhorse, Moxostoma sp., (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) from the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina, USA. Folia Parasitologica.

116. Aceves*, AK, PD Johnson, CL Atkinson, BC van Ee, SA Bullard, CR Arias. In press 2020. Digestive gland microbiome of Ohio pigtoe, Pleurobema cordatum (Rafinesque, 1820): mesocosms induce dysbiosis. Journal of Molluscan Studies.

115. Ksepka*, SP, JM Rash, BL Simcox, DA Besler, MB Warren*, HR Dutton*, SA Bullard. 2020. Whirling disease of wild-caught trouts in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Fish Diseases 2020;00:1-8

114. Dutton*, HR, SA Bullard. 2020. Emendation and new species of the seldom reported Enterohaematotrema Mehra, 1940 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) including a revised phylogenetic hypothesis for turtle blood flukes. Systematic Parasitology 97:335-345.

113. Ksepka*, SP, NV Whelan, C Whipps, SA Bullard. 2020. A new species of Thelohanellus (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida) infecting the somatic muscle of blacktail shiner Cyprinella venusta in Bull Creek, Georgia, USA. Journal of Parasitology 106(3):350-359.

112. Dutton*, HR, SA Bullard. 2020. A new genus and species of turtle blood fluke, Ruavermis mikebargeri gen. et sp. nov. (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea), infecting yellow-headed temple turtle, Heosemys annandali (Cryptodira: Geoemydidae) in Vietnam. Folia Parasitologica 67: 013. doi: 10.14411/fp.2020.013.

111. Warren*, MB, M Bakenhaster, RM Scharer, GR Poulakis, SA Bullard. 2020. A new genus and species of fish blood fluke, Achorovermis testisinuosus gen. et sp. nov. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae), infecting the critically endangered smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata (Rhinopristiformes: Pristidae) in the Gulf of Mexico. Folia Parasitologica 67:009.

110. Warshafsky*, ZT, SA Bullard, WK Vogelbein, EA Chandler, ME Lutcavage. 2020. Prevalence, intensity and pathology of the nasal parasite Nasicola hogansi in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). Journal of Fish Diseases 43(5): DOI: 10.1111/jfd.13129.

109. Ksepka*, SP, JM Rash, NV Whelan, SA Bullard. 2019. A new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) infecting medulla oblongata and nerve cord of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, in southern Appalachia (New River, North Carolina, USA). Parasitology Research 118:3,241-3,252.

108. Warren*, MB, SA Bullard. 2019. First elucidation of a blood fluke (Electrovermes zappus n. gen., n. sp.) life cycle including a chondrichthyan or bivalve. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 10(2019):170-183. 

107. Dutton*, HR, MB Warren, SA Bullard. 2019. New genus and species of turtle blood fluke (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) infecting six-tubercled Amazon river turtles, Podocnemis sextuberculata (Pleurodira: Podocnemididae) from South America (Peru, Amazon River Basin). Journal of Parasitology 105(5):671-685. 

106. McElwain†, A. MB Warren*, FB Pereira, SP Ksepka*, SA Bullard. 2019. Pathobiology and first report of larval nematodes (Ascaridomorpha sp.) infecting freshwater mussels (Villosa nebulosa, Unionidae), including an inventory of nematode infections in freshwater and marine bivalves. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 10(2019):41-58.

105. Bullard†, SA, JR Roberts*, MB Warren*, HR Dutton*, NV Whelan, CF Ruiz*, TR Platt, VV Tkach, SV Brant, KM Halanych. 2019. Neotropical turtle blood flukes: Two new genera and species from the Amazon Basin with a key to genera and comments on marine-derived lineages in South America. Journal of Parasitology 105(4):497-523. 

104. Ruiz*†, CF, SA Bullard. 2019A new species of parasitic copepod (Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae: Neoalbionella) infecting skin of a gulper shark (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae: Centrophorus) in the Gulf of Mexico, with a key to congeners. Journal of Crustacean Biology. 

103. Warren*†, MB, HR Dutton*, NV Whelan, RPE Yanong, SA Bullard. 2019. First record of a species of Mermithidae Braun, 1883 infecting a decapod, Palaemon paludosus (Palaemonidae). Journal of Parasitology 105(2): 237–247.

102. Roberts*, JR, MB Warren*, KM Halanych, SA Bullard†. 2019. Spirorchis spp. (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) infecting map turtles (Cryptodira: Emydidae: Graptemys spp.) in southeastern North America: A new species, molecular phylogeny, and key to species. Systematic Parasitology 95: 133-145.

101. Ruiz*†, CF, W Driggers III, SA Bullard. 2019. A new species of Neoalbionella (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoidea: Lernaeopodidae) from skin of gulper shark, Centrophorus granulosus (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology: 105(2): 203-221.

100. Warren*†, MB, NV Whelan, DC Kritsky, SA Bullard. 2019. Gymnurahemecus bulbosus gen. et sp. nov. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting smooth butterfly rays, Gymnura micrura (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a taxonomic key and further evidence for monophyly of chondrichthyan blood flukes. Parasitology Research 118: 751-762.

99. Aceves*, AK, P Johnson, SA Bullard, S LaFrentz, CR Arias†. 2018. Rearing environment shapes Alabama rainbow (Villosa nebulosa) digestive gland microbiome: comparison between hatchery and stream mussels. Journal of Molluscan Studies 2018: 1-7.

98. Rash†, JM, CF Ruiz*, and SA Bullard. 2018. Impacts of nonnative and invasive fish pathogens to North Carolina’s trout resources and its managers. Proceedings of the Wild Trout Symposium XI, S8: 308-313.

97. Roberts*, JR, CR Arias, KM Halaynch, BT Dang, & SA Bullard†. 2018. A new genus and species of turtle blood fluke (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from the Mekong snail eating turtle, Malayemys subtrijuga (Schlegel & Müeller) (Testudines: Geomydidae) in Vietnam, with a reassessment of related Asiatic turtle blood flukes and molecular phylogeny. Systematic Parasitology 95(2):133-145.

96. Roberts*, JR, KM Halaynch, CR Arias, SS Curran, & SA Bullard†. 2018. A new species of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and Spirorchis scripta Stunkard, 1923 infecting river cooter, Pseudemys concinna Le Conte, 1830 (Testudines: Emydidae) in the Pascagoula River, Mississippi; including an updated phylogeny for Spirorchis spp. Comparative Parasitology 85(2): 120–132.

95. Roberts*, JR & SA Bullard†. 2017. Revision and new species of Vasotrema Stunkard, 1928 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea): turtle blood flukes of North American softshell turtles (Testudines: Trionychidae: Apalone spp.). Journal of Parasitology 103(5):519-540.

94. Ruiz*, CF, JM Rash, CR Arias, D Besler, JR Roberts*, MB Warren*, & SA Bullard†. 2017. Morphological and molecular confirmation of myxospores of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) infecting wild-caught and cultured trouts (Salmonidae) in the southeastern United States (North Carolina). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 126:185-198.

93. Roberts*, JR, KM Halaynch, CR Arias, B Folt, JM Goessling, & SA Bullard†2017.  Emendation and new species of Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from musk turtles (Kinosternidae: Sternotherus) in Alabama and Florida rivers. Parasitology International 66: 748-760.

92. Warren*, MB, JR Roberts*, CR Arias, RP Koenigs, & SA Bullard†. 2017.  Acipensericola glacialis n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from heart of lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae) from the Great Lakes Basin, Lake Winnebago, USA. Systematic Parasitology 94: 875-889.

91. Kritsky†, DC, SA Bullard, CF Ruiz*, & MB Warren*. 2017. Empruthotrema longipenis sp. n. (Monogenoidea: Monocotylidae: Merizocotylinae) from the olfactory sacs of the smooth butterfly ray Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Schneider) (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae) in the Gulf of Mexico. Systematic Parasitology 94:777-784.

90. Kritsky†, DC, SA Bullard, MD Bakenhaster, RM Scharer, & GR Poulakis. 2017. Resurrection of Mycteronastes (Monogenoidea: Monocotylidae), with description of Mycteronastes caalusi sp. n. from olfactory sacs of the smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinata (Pristiformes: Pristidae), in the Gulf of Mexico off Florida. Journal of Parasitology 103(5):477-485.

89. Ruiz*, CF, JM Rash, D Besler, JR Roberts*, MB Warren**, CR Arias, & SA Bullard†2017. Confirmation of two exotic “gill lice” species (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae: Salmincola spp.) infecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the southeastern United States. Journal of Parasitology 103(4):377-389.

88. Bakenhaster†, MD, SA Bullard, SS Curran, DC Kritsky, EH Leone, L Partridge, CF Ruiz*, RM Scharer, & GR Poulakis. 2018. Parasite component community of smalltooth sawfish off Florida; diversity, conservation concerns, and research applications. Endangered Species Research 35: 47-58.

87. Orélis-Ribeiro*, R, KM Halanych, BT Dang, MD Bakenhaster, CR Arias, & SA Bullard†. 2017. Two new species of Elopicola (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis (South China Sea) and Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus (Gulf of Mexico) with a comment on monophyly of elopomorph blood flukes. Parasitology International 66: 305-318.

86. Bullard, SA2017. In memoriam (George W. Benz). Comparative Parasitology 84(1):80-85.

85. Bagnato*†, E, SA Bullard, & F Cremonte. 2017. Redescription of Allobenedenia dischizosepta (Suriano, 1975) n. comb. (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae: Trochopodinae) from gill of Argentine sea basses (Acanthistius) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Comparative Parasitology 84(2):111-118.

84. Warren**, MB, R Orélis-Ribeiro*, CF Ruiz*, BT Dang, CR Arias, & SA Bullard†. 2017. Endocarditis associated with blood fluke infections (Digenea: Aporocotylidae: Psettarium cf. anthicum) among aquacultured cobia (Rachycentron canadum) from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam. Aquaculture 468:549-557.

83. Roberts*†, JR, R Orélis-Ribeiro*, KM Halanych, CR Arias, & SA Bullard. 2016. New species of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and Spirorchis cf. scripta from chicken turtle, Deirochelys reticularia, (Emydidae), with an emendation and molecular phylogeny of SpirorchisFolia Parasitologica 63:041 (doi 10.14411/fp.2016/041).

82. Bullard†, SA. 2016. In Memoriam: George William Benz (1 January 1954 – 9 February 2015). Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 46(2):139-160.

81. Fogg*, AQ, CF Ruiz*, SS Curran†, & SA Bullard. 2016. Parasites from the red lionfish, Pterois volitans from the Gulf of Mexico. Gulf & Caribbean Research 27 (1): SC1-SC5.

80. Roberts*†, JR, R Orélis-Ribeiro*, BT Dang, KM Halanych, & SA Bullard. 2016. Blood flukes of Asiatic softshell turtles: revision of Coeuritrema Mehra, 1933 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and description of a new species infecting Chinese softshell turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis, (Testudines: Trionychidae) cultured in the Da Rang River Basin, Vietnam. Folia Parasitologica 63: 031 (doi 10.14411/fp.2016.031).

79. Roberts*, JR, TR Platt, R. Orélis-Ribeiro*, & SA Bullard†. 2016. New genus of blood fluke (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from Malaysian freshwater turtles (Geomydidae) and its phylogenetic placement within the Schistosomatoidea. Journal of Parasitology 102(4):451-462.

78. Womble*†, MR & SA Bullard. 2016Taxonomic redescription, morphological and molecular diagnosis, and life cycle of Proterometra catenaria Smith, 1934 (Digenea: Azygiidae) from the Choctawhatchee River, Florida, USA. Comparative Parasitology 83(2):137-148.

77. Orélis-Ribeiro*† R & SA Bullard. 2016. Two new genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon. Journal of Parasitology 102(3):357-368.

76. McElwain, A, R Fleming, M Jaloie, C Maney, B Springall, and SA Bullard. 2016. Pathological changes associated with eggs and larvae of Unionicola sp. (Acari, Unionicolidae) infecting Strophitus connasaugaensis (Bivalvia, Unionidae) from Alabama Creeks. Journal of Parasitology 102(1):75-86.

75. Womble*†, MR, SJ Cox-Gardiner**, TR Cribb, & SA Bullard†. 2015. First record of Transversotrema (Digenea) from the Americas, with comments on the taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 and an updated list of its hosts and geographic distribution. Journal of Parasitology 101(6):717-725.

74. Womble*, MR & SA Bullard†. 2015. Ocular deformity in midshipmen Porichthys plectrodon from the north-central Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana. Journal of Fish Biology 2015:1-6.

73. Womble*† M & SA Bullard. 2015. A new species of Proterometra (Digenea: Azygiidae) and its life cycle in the Chickasawhay River, Mississippi, with supplemental observations of Proterometra autrainiParasitology International 65:31-43.

72. Bullard† SA, MR Womble*, MK Maynard**, R Orélis-Ribeiro*, & CR Arias. 2015. Skin lesions on yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares from the Gulf of Mexico’s Outer Continental Shelf: morphological, molecular, and histological diagnosis. Parasitology International 64:609-621.

71. Orélis-Ribeiro*† R & SA Bullard. 2015. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana, and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951. Folia Parasitologica 62:1-17.

70. Larsen*, A, Z Tao*, SA Bullard, & CR Arias†. 2015. Community structure of skin microbiome of Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, is driven by seasonality and not exposure to oiled sediments in a Louisiana salt marsh. FEMS Microbial Ecology DOI 10.1007/s00248-015-0578-7.

69. Blaylock R & SA Bullard. 2015. Counter-insurgents in the Blue Revolution: Parasites, Diseases, and Perceptions. Journal of Parasitology 100(6):743-755.

68. Womble* M, R Orélis-Ribeiro*, & SA Bullard†. 2015. Proterometra epholkos n. sp. (Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albicauda, and host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America. Parasitology International 64:50-69.

67. Bullard, SA, D DeVries, A Wilson, G Lockaby, P Clement, H Kinnucan, and C Newland. 2015. Peer-review in the Cyber Age. In “Auburn Speaks: On Cyber & The Digital Domain” (Leslie Parson & Robert Norton, eds), Auburn University Office of the Vice President for Research, Auburn University Press, Auburn, AL pp 202-211 (invited contribution, editor reviewed).

66. Zhen*, T, SA Bullard, and CR Arias†. 2014. Diversity of culturable bacteria from blood vascular system of lesser electric rays (Narcine bancroftii) captured in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Alabama. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 26:225-232.

65. Orélis-Ribeiro* R, TH Cribb, K Halanych, CR Arias, & SA Bullard†. 2014. Diversity and ancestry of flatworms infecting the blood of non-tetrapod craniates. Advances in Parasitology 85:1-62.

64. Bullard, SA†. 2014. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of Elopomorpha: emended diagnosis of Paracardicoloides, supplemental observations of Paracardicoloides yamagutii, and a new genus and species from ladyfish, Elops saurus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 100(3):305-316.

63. McElwain*†, A & SA Bullard. 2014. Histological atlas of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Villosa nebulosa (Ambleminae: Lampsilini), Fusconaia cerina (Ambleminae: Pleurobemini), and Strophitus connasaugaensis (Unioninae: Anodontini). Malacologia (213 pp, 80 color plates), 57(1):99-239.

62. Patella**, R & SA Bullard†. 2013. Hexabothriids of devil rays (Mobulidae): New genus and species from gill of Mobula hypostoma in the Gulf of Mexico and redescription of a congener from Mobula rochebrunei in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Parasitology 99(5):856-867.

61. Orélis-Ribeiro*, R, CF Ruiz*, SS Curran, & SA Bullard†. 2013. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of lamniforms: Redescription of Hyperandrotrema cetorhini from basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and description of a new congener from shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) off Alabama. Journal of Parasitology 99(5):835-846.

60. Larsen*, A, Z Tao*, SA Bullard, & CR Arias†. 2013. Diversity of the skin microbiota of fishes: evidence for host species specificity. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 85:483-494.

59. Ruiz*, CF & SA Bullard†. 2013. Huffmanela markgracei sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from buccal cavity of Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico off Texas. Folia Parasitologica 60(4):353-358.

58. Truong*, TN & SA Bullard†. 2013Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) and a note on catfish aporocotylids. Folia Parasitologica 60(3):237-247.

57. Ruiz*, CF, C Ray**, M Grace, M Cook, & SA Bullard†. 2013. A new species of Trichosomoididae (Nematoda) from skin of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), on the Texas-Louisiana shelf, Northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 99(2):318-326.

56. Bullard†, SA, H Mohammed*, & CR Arias. 2013. First record of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare genomovar II from bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, (Centrarchidae) with observations on lesions. Journal of Fish Diseases 36:447-451.

55. Farmer†, BD, AJ Mitchell, DL Straus, & SA Bullard. 2013. Efficacy of formalin and copper sulfate on cultured white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque, 1820), (Perciformes: Moronidae) concurrently infected by Onchocleidus mimus Mueller, 1936 (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae) and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 44(2):305-310.

54. McElwain*, A, C Ray**, B Su*, M Sheng, M Fobes, P Duncan, R Thresher, R Dunham, & SA Bullard†. 2013. Osteology and histopathology of unilateral microphthalmia and unilateral anophthalmia in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Alabama. Aquaculture 400-1:135-141.

53. Bullard†, SA. 2013. Cardicola langeli n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from heart of sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus, (Actinopterygii: Sparidae) in the Gulf of Mexico, with an updated list of hosts, infection sites and localities for Cardicola spp. Folia Parasitologica 60(1):17-27.

52. Tao*, Z, A Larsen*, SA Bullard, A Wright, & CR Arias†. 2012. Prevalence and population structure of Vibrio vulnificus in recreational fishes from the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 21:7,611-7,618.

51. Bullard†, SA, EH Williams, Jr, & L Bunkley-Williams. 2012. New genus and species of fish blood fluke (Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912) from stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre, 1788), (Perciformes: Sparisomatinae) in the Caribbean Sea. Journal of Parasitology 98(6):1,139-1,143.

50. Arias†, CR, WL Cai*, E Peatman, & SA Bullard. 2012. Catfish hybrid Ictalurus punctatus × I. furcatus exhibits higher resistance to columnaris disease than the parent species. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 100(1):77-81.

49. Barse, AM & SA Bullard†. 2012. Redescription and new host record of Capsala laevis (Capsalinae) from roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Parasitology 98(4):735-745.

48. Bullard†, SA, M Murray, JD Borucinska, CF Ruiz*, A McElwain*, & GW Benz. 2012. Huffmanela cf. carcharhini (Nematoda: Huffmanelinae) from skin of sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Parasitology 98(2):333-340.

47. Bullard†, SA. 2012. A new aporocotylid (Digenea) species from blood vascular system of gag grouper, Mycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae), off Alabama, with an emendation of Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1989. Journal of Parasitology 98(2):323-327.

46. Bullard†, SA, T Baker*, & I de Buron. 2012. New species of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from heart of Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus, (Sciaenidae) of the South Atlantic Bight. Journal of Parasitology 98(2):328-332.

45. Johnston, C, J Newton, SA Bullard, C Foradori, & B Kaltenbaoeck. 2012. Help from a common inhabitant: Identification of exposure biomarkers in an indigenous fish species. In “Auburn Speaks on Oil Spill” (Allen Furr & Jay Lamar, eds), Auburn University Office of the Vice President for Research, Auburn University Press, Auburn, AL pp 86-89.

44. Tao*, Z, SA Bullard, & CR Arias†. 2011. High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from within oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. EcoHealth 8(4):507-511.

43. Bullard†, SA, O Olivares-Fuster*, GW Benz, & CR Arias. 2011. Molecules infer origins of ectoparasite infracommunities on tunas. Parasitology International 60:447-451.

42. Bullard†, SA, A McElwain*, & CR Arias. 2011. Scanning electron microscopic observations of saddleback lesions associated with experimental infections of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and zebrafish, Danio rerioJournal of the World Aquaculture Society 46(2):906-913.

41. Olivares-Fuster*, O, SA Bullard, A McElwain*, M Jose Llosa, & CR Arias†. 2011. Adhesion dynamics of Flavobacterium columnare to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and zebra danio (Danio rerio) after immersion challenge. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:221-227.

40. Bullard†, SA, A Barse, SS Curran, & J Morris. 2011. First record of a digenean from invasive lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans, in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Parasitology 97(5):833-837.

39. Kritsky†, DC, SA Bullard, & M Bakenhaster. 2011. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: Decoy hosts and the dilution effect. Parasitology International 60(3):274-282.

38. McVay**, MJ, MD Bakenhaster, & SA Bullard†. 2011. Cardicola laruei Short, 1953 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from heart of seatrouts, Cynoscion spp., (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean: taxonomic redescription, first observations of egg and miracidium, and comments on geographic distribution and host specificity. Comparative Parasitology 78(2):291-305.

37. Borucinska†, J & SA Bullard. 2011. Lesions associated with pleurocerci (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in the gastric wall of a cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Fish Diseases 34:149-157.

36. Bullard†, SA. 2010. Littorellicola billhawkinsi n. gen., n. sp. (Aporocotylidae) from the myocardial lacunae of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus (Carangidae) in the Gulf of Mexico; with a comment on interrelationships and functional morphology of intertrabecular aporocotylids. Parasitology International 59:587-598.

35. Kritsky†, DC, M Bakenhaster, E Fajer-Avila, & SA Bullard. 2010. Rhabdosynochus spp. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) infesting the gill lamellae of snooks, Centropomus spp. (Perciformes: Centropomidae), in Florida, and redescription of the type species, R. rhabdosynochusJournal of Parasitology 96(5):879-886.

34. Jensen†, K & SA Bullard. 2010. Characterization of a diversity of tetraphyllidean and rhinebothriidean cestode larval types, comments on host associations and life-cycles. International Journal for Parasitology 40:889-910.

33. Bullard†, SA. 2010. A new species of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the heart and branchial vessels of two surfperches (Embiotocidae) in the Eastern Pacific Ocean off California. Journal of Parasitology 96:382-388.

32. Bullard†, SA, K Jensen, & RM Overstreet. 2009. Historical account of the two family-group names in use for the single accepted family comprising the “fish blood flukes.” Acta Parasitologica 54(1):78-84.

31. Kritsky†, DC, EF Mendoza-Franco, SA Bullard, & VM Vidal-Martinez. 2009. Revision of the amphiamerican Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae), with a description of N. vegrandis n. sp. from the gill lamellae of the blue sea catfish, Ariopsis guatemalensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae), off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Systematic Parasitology 74:1-15.

30. McElwain*, A, O Olivares-Fuster*, CR Arias, & SA Bullard†. 2009. Preliminary observations of pathological changes to skin and gill of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and zebra danio (Danio rerio) exposed to Flavobacterium columnare. Proc. 2nd Int. Flavobacterium Workshop. Paris, France.

29. Bullard†, SA & RM Overstreet. 2008. Chapter 14: Digeneans as enemies of fishes. In: Fish Diseases. J Eiras, H Segner, T Wahil, BG Kapoor (eds.). Science Publishers, US, pages 817-976. (invited review, peer-reviewed).

28. Bullard†, SA & K Jensen. 2008. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae): Orchispirium heterovitellatum from Himantura imbricata in the Bay of Bengal and a new genus and species from Dasyatis sabina in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 94:1,311-1,321.

27. Bullard†, SA, SD Snyder, K Jensen, & RM Overstreet. 2008. New genus and species of Aporocotylidae (Digenea) from a lower actinopterygian, the American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, (Polyodontidae) from the MS Delta. Journal of Parasitology 94:487-495.

26. Ulicny, KJ, DR Stewart, A McElwain*, ER Salmon, SA Bullard, JO Cook, GB Skomal, HL Pratt, Jr, & GW Benz†. 2007. Sealing Whirl-Pak®-type Bags Containing Wet Samples. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences 82(3-4):88-89.

25. Benz†, GW, BE Smith, SA Bullard, & JS Braswell. 2007. New genus and species of eudactylinid (Siphonstomatoida: Copepoda) from gill lamellae of ornate eagle rays, Aetomylaeus vespertilio, (Myliobatidae) from Beagle Gulf off Northern Australia. Journal of Parasitology 93:32-38.

24. Bullard†, SA, RM Overstreet, & JK Carlson. 2006. Selachohemecus benzi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) from the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Systematic Parasitology 63:143-154.

23. Bullard†, SA & RM Overstreet. 2006. Psettarium anthicum sp. n. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) from the heart of cobia Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Folia Parasitologica 53:117-124.

22. Benz, GW & SA Bullard. 2006. Parasites of fishes: list and dichotomous key to identification of major metazoan groups. 9 pp. Conference Proceedings 2005. Anonymous (ed.). AAZA, Silver Spring, MD.

21. Benz†, GW & SA Bullard. 2004. Chapter 24: Metazoan parasites and associates of chondrichthyans with emphasis on taxa harmful to captive hosts. In: The husbandry of elasmobranch fishes. MFL Smith, DA Thoney, & RE Hueter (eds.). Special Publication No. 16, Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, OH. Pages 325-416.

20. Bullard†, SA, R Payne, & JS Braswell. 2004. New genus with two new species of capsalid monogeneans from dasyatids in the Gulf of California. Journal of Parasitology 90(6):1,412-1,427.

19. Bullard†, SA, SM Dippenaar, ER Hoffmayer, & GW Benz. 2004. New locality records for Dermophthirius carcharhini MacCallum, 1926 (Monogenea: Microbothriidae) and D. maccallumi and a list of hosts and localities for species of DermophthiriusComparative Parasitology 71(1):78-80.

18. Bullard†, SA & RM Overstreet. 2004. Two new species of Cardicola (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) in drums (Sciaenidae) from Mississippi and Louisiana. Journal of Parasitology 90(1):128-136.

17. Bullard†, SA, R Goodwin, R Goldstein, & RM Overstreet. 2004. Cardicola forsteri (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) from the heart of a northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Scombridae), in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Comparative Parasitology 71(2):245-246.

16. Frasca†, S Jr, VL Kirsipuu, S Russell, SA Bullard, & GW Benz. 2004. Opercular lesions in black drum (Pogonias cromis) associated with infections of the sea louse Sciaenophilus tenuis (Caligidae). Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 34(2):115-127.

15. Blaylock†, RB, SA Bullard, & CM Whipps. 2004. Kudoa hypoepicardialis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Kudoidae) and associated lesions from the heart of seven perciform fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 90(3):584-593.

14. Benz†, GW, R Hocking, A Kowanna, Sr, SA Bullard, JC George. 2004. A second species of Arctic shark: Pacific sleeper shark Somniosus pacificus off Point Hope Alaska. Polar Biology 27:250-252.

13. Bullard†, SA & SM Dippenaar. 2003. Branchotenthes robinoverstreeti gen. and sp. n. (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae) from gill filaments of the bowmouth guitarfish, Rhina ancylostoma (Rhynchobatidae), in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Parasitology 89(3):595-601.

12. Bullard†, SA, R Hocking, RJ Goldstein, & J Jewell. 2003. A new locality record and three new host records for Neobenedenia melleniGulf and Caribbean Research 15:1-4.

11. Bullard†, SA & RM Overstreet. 2003. Elaphrobates euzeti gen. and sp. n. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) from snappers (Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Mexico. In: Taxonomie, écologie et évolution des métazoaires parasites. Taxonomy, ecology and evolution of metazoan parasites. Tome 1. Combes C. and Jourdane J. (eds), PUP Perpignan:97-113.

10. Bullard†, SA & RM Overstreet. 2002. Potential pathological effects of blood flukes (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) on pen-reared marine fishes. Proceedings of the 53rd Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute: pages 10-25.

9. Benz, GW, SA Bullard, & ADM Dove. 2002. Metazoan parasites of fishes: Synoptic information for aquarists. Proceedings of the Meeting of the American Zoologists and Aquarists, Chattanooga, TN.

8. Benz†, GW, BE Smith, & SA Bullard. 2001. Kroyerina deetsorum n. sp. (Copepoda: Kroyeriidae) from the olfactory sacs of Atlantic sharpnose sharks (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) captured in the Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Atlantic and first report of copepodids of Kroyeriidae. Journal of Parasitology 87(6):1279-1290.

7. Bullard†, SA, S Frasca Jr, & GW Benz. 2001. Gill lesions associated with Erpocotyle tiburonis (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae) on wild and aquarium-held bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo). Journal of Parasitology 87(5):972-977.

6. Benz, GW, SA Bullard, & ADM Dove. 2001. Metazoan parasites of fishes: synoptic information and portal to the literature for aquarists. In: Regional Conference Proceedings 2001. Anonymous (ed.). American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Silver Spring, MD.

5. Bullard†, SA, S Frasca, Jr, & GW Benz. 2000. Skin lesions caused by Dermophthirius penneri (Monogenea: Microbothriidae) on wild-caught blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus). Journal of Parasitology 86(3):618-622.

4. Bullard†, SA, GW Benz, RM Overstreet, EH Williams, Jr, & J Hemdal. 2000. Six new host records and updated list of wild hosts for Neobenedenia melleni (McCallum, 1927) (Capsalidae). Comparative Parasitology 67(2):190-196.

3. Bullard†, SA & RM Overstreet. 2000. Calicotyle californiensis n. sp. and Calicotyle urobati n. sp. (Monogenea: Calicotylinae) from elasmobranchs in the Gulf of California. Journal of Parasitology 86(5):939-944.

2. Bullard†, SA, GW Benz, & JS Braswell. 2000. Dionchus postoncomiracidia (Monogenea: Dionchidae) from skin of blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus (Carcharhinidae). Journal of Parasitology 86(2):245-250.

1. Benz†, GW, Z Kabata, & SA Bullard. 2000. Margolisius abditus n. gen., n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) from gill lamellae of a remora (Remora remora) collected in the Gulf of California. Journal of Parasitology 86(2):241-244.